Health Care Plan

Causes of Pleural Effusion

Nursing Care Plan for Pleural Effusion

Pleural Effusion

A pleural effusion is an excess accumulation of fluid in the pleural space around the lungs. Medical ImageThe pleura are thin membranes that enclose the lungs and line the inside of the chest cavity. The ‘pleural space’ describes the small space between the inner and outer layers of pleura, which normally contains a small volume of lubricating pleural fluid to allow the lungs to expand without friction. This fluid is constantly being formed through leakage of fluid from nearby capillaries and then re-absorbed by the body’s lymphatic system. With a pleural effusion, some imbalance between production and reabsorption of pleural fluid leads to excess fluid building up in the pleural space. There are two major types of pleural effusion :

  • Transudative effusions, where the excess pleural fluid is low in protein; and
  • Exudative effusions, where the excess pleural fluid is high in protein.


Anything that causes an imbalance between production and reabsorption of pleural fluid can lead to development of a pleural effusion. Medical Image Transudative pleural effusions (those low in protein) usually form as a result of excess capillary fluid leakage into the pleural space. Common causes of transudative effusions include :

  • Congestive heart failure;
  • Nephrotic syndrome;
  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Pulmonary embolism; and
  • Hypothyroidism.

Exudative effusions, which are high in protein, are often more serious than transudative effusions. They are formed as a result of inflammation of the pleura, which might happen for example in lung disease. Common causes of exudative effusions include :

  • Pneumonia;
  • Lung cancer, or other cancers;
  • Connective tissue diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Pulmonary embolism;
  • Asbestosis;
  • Tuberculosis; and
  • Radiotherapy.

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Health Care Plan

Nursing Care Plan – Interventions for Cerebral Palsy

Nursing Care Plan - Interventions for Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is a condition lasting damage to brain tissue and not progressive, occurring in a young (since birth) and hinder normal brain development with clinical manifestations may change throughout life and showed abnormalities in the attitude and movement, accompanied by neurological abnormalities in the form of spastic paralysis, ganglia disorders, basal, cereblum and mental disorders.

Nursing Interventions for Cerebral Palsy :

a. The increasing need for security and prevent injury

1) avoid children from harmful objects, for example can be dropped.
2) watch the children during activity.
3) give the kids a break when tired.
4) use safety equipment when necessary.
5) when a seizure; install a safety device in the mouth so that the tongue is not bitten.
6) do suction.
7) the provision of anti-seizure in the event of a seizure.

b. Improve the physical mobility

1) examine the movement of the joints and muscle tone.
2) do physical therapy.
3) do repositioning every 2 hours.
4) evaluation of the needs of special equipment for eating, writing and reading and activities.
5) teach the use of a walker.
6) teach how to sit, crawl in young children, walking, and others.
7) teaches how to reach for objects.
8) taught to move the limbs.
9) teach appropriate ROM.
10) provide a rest period.

c. Increases the need rumbuh flowers in the optimum level

1) examine the growth and development.
2) teaching for early intervention with therapeutic recreation and school activities.
3) Provide appropriate activities, withdrawal and can be done by a child

d. Improve communication

1) examine the response to communication.
2) use the cards / pictures / whiteboards to facilitate communication.
3) Involve the family in training a child to communicate.
4) refer to a speech therapist.
5) teach and assess non-verbal meaning.
6) trained in the use of the lips, mouth and tongue.

e. Improve the nutritional status needs

1) examine the diet of children.
2) Weigh weight every day.
3) provide adequate nutrition and food preferences, lots of protein, minerals and vitamins.
4) Give extra foods that contain lots of calories.
5) Help your child meet their daily needs with the ability

f. Prevent the occurrence of aspiration

1) do immediately when there is suction secretions.
2) provide an upright position or semi-sitting while eating and drinking.
3) examine the pattern of breathing

g. Increase the need for intellectual

1) review the child’s level of understanding.
2) teach in understanding conversations with verbal or non verbal.
3) teach writing using whiteboards or other devices that can be used according to the ability of parents and children.
4) teaching reading and writing according to his needs

h. Meet the daily needs

1) examine the level of children’s ability to meet daily needs.
2) assist in meeting the needs; eating and drinking, elimination, personal hygiene, dress, play activities.
3) Involve families and for children who are cooperative in meeting their daily needs.

i. Enhance the knowledge and the role of parents in meeting child care needs

1) examine the level of parental knowledge.
2) teach parents to express their feelings about the child’s condition.
3) teach parents in meeting child care needs.
4) teach about the conditions experienced by children and are related to physical therapy and exercise needs.
5) emphasize that parents and families have an important role in helping meet the needs.
6) explain the importance of play and socialization needs of others.

j. Prevent to impaired skin integrity

1) examine the area that is attached ancillary equipment.
2) use a skin lotion to prevent dry skin.
3) do the massage in a depressed area.
4) provide a comfortable position and provide support with pillows.
5) ensure that ancillary equipment or dressing appropriately and fixed.

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Health Care Plan

2 Nursing Care Plan for Bladder Cancer

Nursing Care Plan for Bladder Cancer - Nursing Diagnosis and InterventionsBladder cancer is any of several types of malignancy arising from the epithelial lining (i.e. “the urothelium”) of the urinary bladder. The bladder is rarely involved by non-epithelial cancers (such as lymphoma or sarcoma) but these are not properly included in the colloquial term “bladder cancer.” It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine; it is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer recapitulates the normal histology of the urothelium and is known as transitional cell carcinoma.

Bladder cancer characteristically causes blood in the urine; this may be visible to the naked eye (gross hematuria) or detectable only by microscope (microscopic hematuria). Other possible symptoms include pain during urination, frequent urination (polyuria) or feeling the need to urinate without results. These signs and symptoms are not specific to bladder cancer, and are also caused by non-cancerous conditions, including prostate infections and cystitis. Kidney cancer also can cause hematuria.

Nursing Care Plan for Bladder Cancer Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Bladder Cancer 

1. Nursing Diagnosis for Bladder Cancer: Risk for infection related to inadequate defenses, secondary and immune system (the effect of chemotherapy / radiation), malnutrition, invasive procedures.


  • Patients are able to identify and participate in infection prevention measures.
  • Showed no signs of infection and wound healing normally takes place.

Nursing Interventions for Bladder Cancer:

  • Wash hands before taking action. Visitors are also encouraged to do the same.
  • Maintain a good personal hygine
  • Monitor the temperature
  • Examine all the systems to look for signs of infection
  • Avoid / limit invasive procedures and maintain aseptic procedures
  • Collaborative
  • Give antibiotics when indicated.

2. Nursing Diagnosis for Bladder Cancer: Risk for Sexual Dysfunction related to deficit of knowledge / skills about alternative responses to health transition, decreased function / structure, the effects of treatment.


  • Patients may express its understanding of the effects of cancer and treatment on sexuality.
  • Maintaining sexual activity within your limits

Nursing Interventions for Bladder Cancer:

  • Discuss with patients and families about sexuality and the reaction process and its relationship with disease
  • Give advise on the effect of treatment on sexuality
  • Give privacy to the patient and her partner. Knock before entering.

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Health Care Plan

What are the Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Blood in the urine (hematuria) is the most common symptom. It eventually occurs in nearly all cases of bladder cancer and is generally described as “painless”. Although the blood may be visible during urination, in most cases, it is invisible except under a microscope. In these, the blood is usually discovered when analyzing a urine sample as part of a routine examination. Blood in the urine, similar to blood in the stool or coughing up blood, is a potential warning sign of cancer, and should not be ignored.

Hematuria does not by itself indicate or confirm the presence of bladder cancer. Blood in the urine has many possible causes. For example, it may result from a urinary tract infection or kidney stones rather than from cancer. It is important to note that hematuria, particularly microscopic, might be entirely normal for some individuals. A diagnostic investigation is necessary to determine whether bladder cancer is present.

Other symptoms of bladder cancer may include frequent urination and pain upon urination (dysuria). Such “irritative” symptoms are less common. When present in the absence of a urinary infection (which may have similar or identical symptoms) exclusion of a bladder cancer as the possible cause is mandatory.

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Health Care Plan

8 Nursing Care Plan for Tuberculosis – Nursing Diagnosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.

TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected.

About one-third of the world’s population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with disease and cannot transmit the disease.

People infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB of 10%. However persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill.

8 Nursing Care Plan for  Tuberculosis - Nursing Diagnosis

Nursing Diagnosis for Tuberculosis

  1. Ineffective Airway Clearance
  2. Risk for impaired Gas Exchange
  3. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements
  4. Risk for Infection
  5. Fatigue
  6. Ineffective Coping
  7. Risk for Injury
  8. Deficient Knowledge [Learning Need] regarding condition, treatment, prevention.

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Health Care Plan



Product Description

The new Graham-Field Plan-o-Grahams will help you take your retail showroom to the next level. The planograms are designed to put popular products right in front of customers browsing through your store. The Lumex, John Bunn and Grafco brands are leaders in the industry and now you can organize and showcase the products in an appealing display that will have your customers interested and buying!

When you purchase your Graham-Field Plan-o-Graham, you will receive the planogram headers as a free gift to you.

Currently packaging is our traditional Lumex blue. Stay tuned for our new updated packaging coming soon!

Note: Kit does not include slat walls or peg hooks.


Health Care Plan

3M 1860 N95 Health Care Respirator 20 Per Box

3M 1860 N95 Health Care Respirator 20 Per Box

Product Features

Item Package Quantity: 1
  • Soft Inner Shell for Greater Comfort
  • Fluid Resistant
  • Niosh Approved
  • Meets CDC Guidelines

Product Description

Item Package Quantity: 1

3M? HEALTH CARE N95 PARTICULATE RESPIRATOR & SURGICAL MASK Regular Particulate Respirator Mask Cone Molded, 20/bx, 6 bx/cs NIOSH approved as a Type 95 respirator. It meets CDC guidelines for TB exposure control and is designed specifically for use in a health care setting. 

Health Care Plan

Nursing Care Plan for Diabetes – Sample

Nursing Care Plan for Diabetes - Diagnosis Interventions

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood.

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.

A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

3 Nursing Care Plan Diabetes Mellitus – Diagnosis, Interventions and Rational

Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus
1. Nursing Diagnosis : Fluid Volume Deficit related to osmotic diuresis.

Demonstrate adequate hydration evidenced by stable vital signs, palpable peripheral pulse, skin turgor and capillary refill well, individually appropriate urinary output, and electrolyte levels within normal limits.

Nursing Intervention:
1.) Monitor vital signs.
Rational: hypovolemia can be manifested by hypotension and tachycardia.
2.) Assess peripheral pulses, capillary refill, skin turgor, and mucous membranes.
Rational: This is an indicator of the level of dehydration, or an adequate circulating volume.
3.) Monitor input and output, record the specific gravity of urine.
Rational: To provide estimates of the need for fluid replacement, renal function, and effectiveness of the therapy given.
4.) Measure weight every day.
Rational: To provide the best assessment of fluid status of ongoing and further to provide a replacement fluid.
5.) Provide fluid therapy as indicated.
Rational: The type and amount of liquid depends on the degree of lack of fluids and the response of individual patients.
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Health Care Plan

Nursing Care Plan for Pain – Acute Pain

Nursing Care Plan for Pain – Acute Pain 

Acute Pain Definition: Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage (International Association for the Study of Pain); sudden or slow onset of any intensity from mild to severe with an anticipated or predictable end and a duration of less than 6 months

Pain is a highly subjective state in which a variety of unpleasant sensations and a wide range of distressing factors may be experienced by the sufferer. Pain may be a symptom of injury or illness. Pain may also arise from emotional, psychological, cultural, or spiritual distress. Pain can be very difficult to explain, because it is unique to the individual; pain should be accepted as described by the sufferer. Pain assessment can be challenging, especially in elderly patients, where cognitive impairment and sensory-perceptual deficits are more common.

Acute Pain Related Factors:

  • Postoperative pain
  • Cardiovascular pain
  • Musculoskeletal pain
  • Obstetrical pain
  • Pain resulting from medical problems
  • Pain resulting from diagnostic procedures or medical treatments
  • Pain resulting from trauma
  • Pain resulting from emotional, psychological, spiritual, or cultural distress

Acute Pain Defining Characteristics :

  • Patient reports pain
  • Guarding behavior, protecting body part
  • Self-focused
  • Narrowed focus (e.g., altered time perception, withdrawal from social or physical contact)
  • Relief or distraction behavior (e.g., moaning, crying, pacing, seeking out other people or activities, restlessness)
  • Facial mask of pain
  • Alteration in muscle tone: listlessness or flaccidness; rigidity or tension
  • Autonomic responses (e.g., diaphoresis; change in blood pressure [BP], pulse rate; pupillary dilation; change in respiratory rate; pallor; nausea)

NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification)
Suggested NOC Labels

  • Comfort Level
  • Medication Response
  • Pain Control

NIC Interventions (Nursing Interventions Classification)
Suggested NIC Labels

  • Analgesic Administration
  • Conscious Sedation
  • Pain Management
  • Patient-Controlled Analgesia Assistance
  • Expected Outcomes
  • Patient verbalizes adequate relief of pain or ability to cope with incompletely relieved pain.

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Health Care Plan

Healthcare Administration As a Career

Healthcare administrators plan, direct, coordinate and oversee the functions of healthcare facilities and the people that work there. They are responsible for the all round efficiency in these facilities and the quality of care they provide.

Healthcare administrators can be divided into two groups: the generalists and the specialists. Generalists are administrators who manage or help manage entire healthcare facilities. Specialists, on the other hand, look after the smooth functioning of a particular department in healthcare facilities, such as finance, accounts, human resources, marketing, budgeting, personnel, medical records, nursing, public relations etc. Let’s take a look at some of the skills and educational qualifications required to become a successful healthcare administrator.
Educational requirements

Someone with a keen eye for detail, good observation skills, excellent managerial and leadership skills and effective communication can make a good healthcare administrator. While a bachelor’s degree in healthcare administration can get you entry-level jobs at smaller facilities, a master’s degree will ultimately help you secure higher paying jobs in advanced administrative positions in the field.

Luckily, colleges all over the world now offer undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs in healthcare administration both on campus and online. Independence University is an accredited college that provides online degree programs in healthcare and business. According to student reviews of Independence University, the master’s of science in healthcare administration degree program instills in its students the necessary skills to make services provided by a healthcare facility more effective. A student review of Independence University, just like any other review of a college, should give you an insight into the college’s financial aid assistance programs, student complaint resolution, student services and much more.

A master’s of science in healthcare administration prepares you for medical and health services manager job roles in various healthcare facilities such as: hospitals, clinics, mental health facilities, nursing homes, private physicians offices, assisted living centers and consulting firms.


Administrators looking to work in nursing care facilities are required by all the states and the District of Columbia to hold bachelor’s degree, pass a licensing exam, complete a training program approved by the State and pursue a higher education.

Some other states also require administrators working in assisted-living facilities to hold licenses. No other medical or health or service management area requires a license.

Salaries and job outlook

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the medical and health services manager job opportunities are likely to increase by 16 percent between 2008 and 2018. Medical and health services managers can earn salaries ranging from anywhere between $48, 300- $137,800.

In conclusion, healthcare administration makes for a great choice for those who wish to establish their careers in the medical field without having to attend nursing or medical school.

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